What We Believe




 

1. (A) The statement of Faith and the Creed

 

 The teachings of The Church are derived from two sources: Holy Scripture and Sacred Tradition. Scripture contains those truths taught by Christ to the Apostles and later put into writing. Apostolic Tradition represents those truths, but not committed to writing, and the perspective of the ancient magi who were consecrated Bishops in the Church by Apostles. The Evangelist John tells us "Jesus did many other things as well. If every one of them were written down, I suppose that even the whole world would not have room for the books that would be written." (21:25).

Nicene Creed

We believe in one God, the Father Almighty, Maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible. And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-begotten, begotten of the Father before all ages. Light of Light; true God of true God; begotten, not made; of one essence with the Father, by whom all things were made; who for us men and for our salvation came down from heaven, and was incarnate of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin Mary, and became man. And He was crucified for us under Pontius Pilate, and suffered, and was buried. And the third day He rose again, according to the Scriptures; and ascended into heaven, and sits at the right hand of the Father; and He shall come again with glory to judge the living and the dead; whose Kingdom shall have no end. And [we believe] in the Holy Spirit, the Lord, the Giver of Life, who proceeds from the Father; who with the Father and the Son together is worshipped and glorified; who spoke by the prophets. In one Holy, Catholic, and Apostolic Church. we acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins. we look for the resurrection of the dead, and the life of the world to come. Amen.

The sign of the Cross

The sign of the Cross, depicting the symbol common to Christians, is integral to Orthodox worship and common prayer. It is made with right hand. The thumb and the first two fingers are held together which signify faith in the Holy Trinity, ie.FATHER, SON and HOLY SPIRIT. The last two fingers are bent against the palm. In making the sign of the Cross , we start from the forehead to chest and then touch from the left to the right shoulder. Thus, we confess that the Almighty God came down to earth from heaven, suffered and died on the cross for our sins and redeemed us from Satan (from the slavery of sin to the freedom of righteousness and son of God).

The sign of the Cross is both unspoken and a confession of faith and the outward expression of inner prayer. In making the sign of the Cross a person prays with his whole being. With the sign of the Cross we appeal to the redeeming death of the Son of God on the Cross, and with this, the sign of victory, we banish the evil thoughts and feelings that creep in to our minds.

All the blessings are given with the sign of the Cross. It is essential to make the sign of the Cross

·                     when we receive blessings in our liturgy

·                     at the time of blessing of the censor

·                      waving the censor to the congregation by the deacon, priest or bishop at the time of communion.

·                     while kissing the cross and the bishop's hand at the reception of blessings.

·                      In common prayer at the outset of the prayer, thrice at the time of Trisagion, thrice at the recital of the praise of Cerubim, thrice at the time of the Creed, thrice at the time of morning prayer and when we remember the Cross.
The sign of Cross is always, with few exceptions, associated with a bow to the object of prayer, the invisibly present God. First we peacefully make the sign of the Cross and then we bow or do prostration. By making the sign of the Cross we abide in the protective shade of the Holy Cross.

Baptism
Baptism is the most important of all the Christian Sacraments. But this doesn't reduce the importance of Holy Communion. Baptism is the first step with which one is entering into the church, the body of Christ. Through the turn of centuries Christian churches began to be separated and sub-divided based on difference in faith and practices. It is true that some divisions have happened due to misunderstanding in the interpretation some theological terms.

·                     Holy Baptism is a Sacrament, being the gate through which the human being enters into the Christian faith. Therefore, it should be performed with the utmost reverence and awareness by the priests, and received with true faith by the believers.

·                     The Sacrament of Baptism shall be performed at the baptistery in the church, except in cases of necessity resulting from extreme sickness or forcible circumstances; then baptism shall be performed in the homes of the believers by permission of the bishop. In this case, a wide and deep basin should be made ready in which water is to be sanctified. This basin is to be used exclusively for baptism. This procedure shall also be followed in countries where we have no church or house of prayer.

·                     The bishop as well as the priest shall perform the Sacrament of Baptism fully dressed in his vestments. Incense shall be offered as is required by the rituals of the church.

·                     Baptism shall be performed in the morning after the Divine Liturgy, unless an emergency may require its performance before or at any other time.

·                     For every male child there must be an Orthodox Godfather, and for every female child an Orthodox Godmother.

·                     Two kinds of oils shall be used in the administration of baptism. The Holy Oil, which is consecrated by the bishop, shall be administered before immersion.

·                     The Holy Chrism (myron), which is consecrated by the Patriarch / Catholicos, confirms the baptized and shall be administered after baptism.

·                     The godparents, before participating in the baptismal ceremony, shall, with due respect and purification, confess and receive Holy Communion. They should also instruct the baptized male or female in the Christian doctrine and religion.

·                     The priest shall register the name of the baptized in the church baptismal registry. It is proper and commendable that the baptized be given a Christian name.

·                     When the priest baptizes male and female children at the same time, he is not permitted to immerse them simultaneously in the same water. He should immerse the male children first, and after changing the water, the female children. In cases of multiple baptisms, the priest shall immerse the children in descending order with the oldest being first.

·                     If a child is near death, the priest shall baptize him without immersion, by pouring water upon his (her) forehead and the rest of his (her) body if possible.

·                     The Sacrament of Baptism should be fulfilled two weeks after birth, unless an emergency requires postponement. In such a case, baptism may be performed after one month but not later than two months.

·                     A priest can baptize his own child only in cases of emergency or when another priest is not available.

·                     If a child is near death, a high deacon (gospeller) can baptize him or her, in the absence of a priest. Later on, if the baptized lives the priest shall confirm the child by anointing him (her) with holy chrism.

·                     In an emergency, the priest can baptize even after having had his meal. In an emergency of death, the priest shall use the shortened service of Baptism of Mar Severius, Patriarch of Antioch.

As to the holy water, it should be poured in the baptismal font or in a clean place, such as a field or a garden.

 

Priesthood
While we believe in the general priesthood of all believers (I Pet. 2:9), we believe in the special priesthood also. This was handed down from the apostles to the bishops and priests, through apostolic succession. We believe that the bishops and priests act as the symbols and representatives of God. Our Lord says that the sins forgiven by the authorized persons, will be forgiven by God. "Receive ye the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven, if you retain the sins of any, they are retained" (St.John 20:23).


The Orthodox Church is an Episcopal church. There is the three-fold ministry of priesthood in the church, namely bishop, priest and deacon. Bishop is the symbol of unity in the church. The church's teachings on priesthood are made clear in the following passage. "Priests are the guides, making the earthly beings into heavenly beings. They are the ambassadors of God. They administer the sacraments entrusted to His church. No one can receive this position by himself. This is for those who are elected according to the will of God and those who have received the ordination through the laying on of hands by the bishop. Anyone with out this laying on of hands and permission has no authority to do any service or to preach in the church. No one is allowed to doubt the validity of the sacraments conducted by those in the priestly service, as long as they are not suspended or dismissed by the Holy Synod or higher authorities, however unworthy those priests may be. It is also not right to refrain from the services conducted by such priests. As the holy anointing is upon the priests as they conduct the services in the name of the Lord Jesus Christ, and as the effect of the service does not depend on the righteousness of the priests, those who participate in the services with good intention and true faith will receive spiritual strength. Those priests who conduct the services in their unworthiness will receive God's punishment. Those who are found to be guilty are to be dismissed and they are not to conduct any sacrament afterwards. The faithful shall not participate in the services conducted by the dismissed priests if they happen to conduct services" (Mar Dionysius Geevarghese  Vattasseril Metropolitan. Mathopadesha Saram - Teachings of the Religion - Page 29, 30).

The Priesthood in the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Chruch is largely connected with its foundation, and development of the church through centuries. The history of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church starts with its establishment in 52 A. D. by St. Thomas, one of the twelve apostles of the Jesus Christ.He converted the local Brahmins and ordained presbyters -bishops-, belonging to the four families in ancient India. St. Thomas also established eight (7 1/2) churches in the different parts of India (Maliankara, Paloor, Parur, Gokamangalam, Niranom, Chayal (Nilackal), Kollam and Thiruvithamcode.


Eligibility for ordination and consecration Priesthood is a divine call. God calls people to priesthood through the laity and the ordained ministers. The process for selection to priesthood, in the Malankara Orthodox Synan Church is as follows. Deacon/Priest "Those desiring to be ordained shall on the recommendation of the Parish Assembly or on their own, apply to the Diocesan Metropolitan and he after due inquiry, if he feels no objection, shall send them to the Malankara Metropolitan and he according to his convenience, shall send them to the Theological Seminary of the community and if, after needed theological study, the principal of the Seminary certifies that they are fit for ordination, the Diocesan Metropolitan or Malankara Metropolitan will at their discretion ordain them. But after three years of theological studies, if a certificate is issued by the principal, the ordination of "Korooyo" (Reader) may be administered" (Constitution of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church -Clause 111). Generally, a full deacon (Samsono) is not allowed to marry. Hence the decision about marriage should be taken before ordination as a full deacon. Both married and unmarried deacons can be ordained priests.


Praying for the departed and asking for the intercession of saints


We pray for the departed souls. Some Protestant churches teach that there is no use of praying for the departed souls as the departed souls are inactive. The New Testament tells that the departed souls are active. The departed souls can please God (II Cor.5:9). They are worshiping God day and night (Rev.7:15). Since they are in need of God's grace to please God and to worship Him, it is our duty to pray for them for the necessary grace. As our Lord preached the gospel to the de-parted souls, (I Pet.3: 19) we pray for the repentance and forgiveness of sins of the departed. We believe that the departed souls also can repent, if they are not hardened completely in sin. Intercession of the saints: We seek intercession of the living and departed saints. Some Protestant churches do not seek intercession of the departed saints. Since the departed are watching over us (Heb 12:1) and are worshiping God (Heb Chapter 11) and since they are beyond time and space, (Moses and Elijah appeared at the mount of transfiguration), it is biblical to seek the intercession of the departed saints. They are with us, wherever we are, as they are with God who is with us wherever we are. Infant baptism: We give baptism to the infants also. St. Peter says that the Holy Spirit is given to the infants also (Acts.2:39). As children grow up, they are taught our faith and they are helped to have repentance. Thus they are made to dedicate themselves, especially through the Holy Confession and Holy Qurbana.

Holy Confession

Auricular (told privately) confession is necessary as our Lord has given the authority to the church, not only to forgive, but also to retain sins (St.John.20:21-23). Isaiah's sins were forgiven when he confessed (Isa.6:1-6). Holy Confession is also a time in which we renew our baptismal promises. When we confess our sins of commission (doing things we ought not do), we make a promise not to repeat them. When we confess the sins of omission (not doing what we ought to do), we make a promise not to omit the things in future.

 

1. (B). Describe the form of worship

 

Holy Eucharist

We believe that in a mysterious way the bread becomes the body and wine becomes the blood of our Lord. It was after blessing the bread and wine that our Lord said, "This is my body" and "This is my blood". Just as our Lord was perfect God and perfect man, without any change in the godhood and man-hood, after the blessing, the bread is, both bread and the body of our Lord. Also after blessing, the wine is both wine and blood of our Lord. Protestant churches say that the bread and wine are only the symbols of the body and blood of our Lord.

Eastern churches give primary importance to worship. The heart beats of the church are manifested in worship. The Holy Eucharist is the crown of all other worships. It is performed 'in spirit and in truth" (John. 4:24).f) The term "Qurbana" is Syriac and it means sacrifice or offering (that which is offered to God). Through the sacrifice of our Lord, we offer ourselves and the whole universe as a sacrifice to the heavenly Father.. This holy sacrifice was instituted and entrusted with His disciples, by our Lord. The church celebrates this holy sacrifice as the continuation of the sacrifice on Calvary. Man, made as little less than God and crowned with glory and honor, (Ps. 8:5) is basically a worshipping creature. The infirmities and gratitude of the creation, bring man to the creator. He stands with a humble heart, bowed head and eyes yearning for God's vision, before the Almighty God who is the Creator and Sustainer of all. Man often enjoys fellowship with God in silence also reminding us of the verse "Be still and know that I am God" (Ps. 46:10).


Passover was the memorial of the flight of the Israelites from Egypt. Moreover, the blood of the Passover lamb was smeared on the two door posts and lintel of the houses, to allow the inhabitants to escape from the plague of destruction (Ex. 12:13). The eternal sacrifice of our Lord marked the end of the bloody sacrifice. This was the end of the Jewish Passover and the beginning of the Christian Passover also. When "the lamb of God which taketh away the sin of the world" (Jn. 1:29) was sacrificed, the new Passover was established. The bread used by our Lord for the institution of the Eucharist was leavened bread ("lahmo" - in Syriac and "artos" - in Greek). Hence the Orthodox Churches use leavened bread for Holy Eucharist from the very early days. There is a tradition that, a part of the dough used for making the bread was set apart and kept as leaven when the bread was made for the Last Supper.This leaven is mixed with the dough when the bread is made for the next Eucharist. This tradition is continued even today.

"Do this in remembrance of me" (Lk. 22:19) was the command of our Lord who instituted Holy Eucharist. We read in the book of Acts, how Holy Eucharist was celebrated in the early church (Act. 2:42,46; 20:7). Orthodox Churches, unlike Protestant Churches, give great importance to Holy Eucharist. Holy Eucharist is celebrated on all Sundays, and other feast days except Good Friday. All the other sacraments are perfected by Holy Eucharist. eg. Baptism, Confession, Ordination, Marriage and Anointing of the sick. Also, consecration of the church and Holy Myron are perfected by Holy Eucharist. The church teaches that all who participate in the service should receive Holy Communion.The hymns and prayers in the Holy Eucharist bear witness to this. There is no teaching in the Orthodox Church that there need not be Holy Eucharist when there is none to receive Holy Communion. Administering the Ministry of the Word alone, instead of Holy Eucharist is against Orthodox tradition.

"In remembrance of me" Holy Eucharist is not a mere intellectual calling back to memory of something that happened in the past. It is the calling back to experience in the present tense that which happened in the past. Through worship, and participation in the body and blood of our Lord, we bring to our present experience, our Lord Jesus Christ Himself and His saving acts. We become one with our Lord in Holy Eucharist. The whole account of our Lord's incarnation is brought to rmembrance in every Holy Eucharist. In a prayer of the preparatory service of the Holy Eucharist, it is said "we celebrate the memorial of our Lord God and Savior Jesus Christ, and all His saving acts on our behalf, especially the annunciation by the angel, His glorious conception, His bodily birth, His baptism in the River Jordan, His fasting for forty days, His atoning passion, His crucifixion, His lifegiving death, His burial in honor, His glorious resurrection, His ascension into heaven and His sitting on the righ-hand side of the Father". (Liturgy of the Holy Eucharist of the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church. Mar Julius Press, Pampakuda - 1986,~Page - 272).

Structure of the Eucharist

1.Preparation rites (tuyobo):

The important elements of the preparation rites are the vesting of the celebrant and the preparation of the bread and wine on the altar. The priest places the bread in the paten and pours the wine in the chalice and holds them in the form of a cross. Then he remembers the names of the faithful, the sick and the departed. Then he places the paten and the chalice on the altar and covers them with the veil (Sosappa). The preparation rites are concluded with censing.

2.  Public celebration or Pre-anaphora:

The pre-anaphora begins with a solemn procession around the altar. Formerly at this time the bread and wine were solemnly brought to the altar in a procession. During the procession, the congregation sings the anthem (manitho) composed by Patriarch Mar Severios of Antioch (+518). This entrance hymn is a beautiful summary of our doctrine of Christ. In fact there are several liturgical hymns and prayers that describe the faith of the Church in a rather simple style. After the procession, the priest begins the Trisagion, which is addressed to Christ.

3. Reading of the Scriptures:

Then the Epistles and the Gospel are read. Formerly, the lessons from the Old Testament were also read at this moment. The Gospel is the “life-giving proclamation” of the words and deeds of our Lord Jesus Christ. Our worship and our hope are founded on the salvific work and the life-giving words pf the Lord. In the early Church, the Scripture reading was followed by the sermon, a custom still followed by many Churches. Sermon is an important element of the worship and it aims at explaining the meaning and relevance of the text that was read.

4. Promiun-Sedra and the Blessing of the Censor

The Syriac word Sedra means ‘row’ or ‘series’. Sedra is a series of prayers and meditations. Promiun (Greek word means introduction) is the introduction to Sedra. Promiun and  sedra help us to participate in the Holy Qurbana with devotion and attention.

Then as the first step of the censing of the whole church, the celebrant offers incense and blesses the censer. The blessing of the censer in the Name of the Holy Trinity implies that we offer our prayers to the Triune God. Incense and censer are the symbols of Christ, who “offered Himself as a fragrant offering and sacrifice to God” (Eph.5:2). According to the Book of Revelation, ‘the prayers of the saints ascend before God as an incense’ (Rev.5:8). Therefore the offering of incense means that the prayers of the Church ascend towards God as a fragrant offering that pleases God.

5.  The Nicene Creed:

Creed is the summary of the faith of the Church since the apostolic times. Chanting of the Creed in the Holy Qurbana and in all prayers and sacramental celebrations means that we are worshiping in accordance with the faith of the apostles and the Church fathers. Creed is the confession of our faith in the Holy Trinity, the Church, one baptism, the Kingdom of God and the final resurrection. These fundamental doctrines are regularly evoked in our prayers.

6. Offering of the Holy Qurbana:

The part of the celebration that follows the Creed is called ‘Anaphora’ (Greek word means ‘offering’). As the first step, the priest washes his hands, symbolizing the purification of the heart. Then he kneels down before the altar and says an inaudible prayer and commemorates the names.

7. Kiss of peace and the lifting up of the veil:

Kiss of peace is exchanged in accordance with our Lord’s words to reconcile each other before offering a sacrifice (Mtt.5:23-24). Then the deacon asks the people to bow down their heads and the priest prays God to send His blessings upon those who have assembled before Him.  Then the priest lifts up the veil with which the paten and chalice are covered. The lifting up symbolizes that the life-giving and heavenly mysteries are revealed through the Holy Qurbana. This is followed by the Trinitarian blessing.

8. Introductory Dialogue:

With the dialogue (Lift up your hearts…, Let us give thanks to the Lord..) the central part of the celebration begins. The priest says the prayer of thanksgiving, which evokes God’s mercy towards us. In fact the whole Holy Qurbana is a thanksgiving (Eucharist) for the great things that God had done for us by sending His Son for our salvation. Then the congregation chants the ‘Sanctus’ (= holy) or the angelic hymn (Is.6: 3), implying that we are joining the heavenly worship and praising God along with innumerable angels.

9. Words of Institution:

The celebrant signs crosses over the bread and wine proclaiming the institution of the Eucharist by Christ in His Last Supper. Thus the event that took place in the Upper-room has been evoked and we are made participants in it. The Roman Catholic Church gives undue importance to the Words of Institution and teaches that the bread and wine are ‘transformed’ into the body and blood of Christ when the priest pronounces them. This is known as ‘transubstantiation’ and the Orthodox Churches do not accept this theory.

10.  Anamnesis or the Commemoration of the Salvific works:

During the Last Supper, Our Lord instructed His disciples : “Do this in remembrance of me” (Lk.22:16; 1 Cor.14:24-25). Following this commandment, the priest evokes the events in the earthly life of our Lord and His second coming. The Holy Qurbana has been founded on the salvific works of our Lord and it anticipates His second coming and the life in the coming world.

11. Invocation of the Holy Spirit (Epiclesis)

Invocation of the Holy Spirit is one of the characteristic traits of the Orthodox liturgy. In the Anaphora of St James, we ask God the Father to “ send the Holy Spirit upon us and upon the Eucharist placed on the altar”. The Holy Spirit descends and makes the bread and the wine the very body and blood of Christ. The same Spirit comes and abides in us to make us the Church, the Body of Christ.

12. Intercessions (Tubden):

The intercessions contain six canons (‘set of prayers’), each consisting of three prayers. The first three canons commemorate the living and the rest the departed. The intercessions are the prayers for the well being of the whole members of the Church, both living and the departed. Among the departed saints, we remember those who have lived as witnesses to Christ, especially the Virgin Mary, the Apostles, the martyrs, and all the doctors of the Church who have zealously guarded the apostolic faith.

13. Fraction:

The fraction ceremony is the preparation for the communion. The prayer during the fraction evokes the passion, death and resurrection of Christ, the living bread who was “broken” on the cross for our salvation.

14. The Lord’s Prayer:

Here the Lord’s Prayer serves as the preparatory prayer for receiving the Holy Communion. The phrase Give us this day our daily bread has been often interpreted as a request for the Holy Communion. At the end of the Qurbana, we address God “Our Father” and thus we confess that we are His sons through our communion with Christ.

15. Holy Things to the Holy:

This is an invitation to receive the Holy Qurbana, as well a warning about its sacredness. The entire congregation cries out: The One Holy Father…Holy Son, the Holy Spirit with us. This means that through the Holy Qurbana, we have been granted communion with the Holy Trinity. Then the service is concluded with the Kukliun, which a cycle of prayers seeking the intercession of the Virgin Mary and the saints, as well as commemorating the departed priests and faithful.

16.  Holy Communion and the Thanksgiving:

The priest first receives the communion, followed by all those who are in the Madbaha. Then the Holy Mysteries are brought to the people to communicate them. In the thanksgiving prayer that follows, the priest gives thanks to God for His abundant mercy “wherewith He has made us worthy to partake of His heavenly table”. With the dismissal, the celebration is concluded.

 

Meaning of the Holy Eucharist


Holy Qurbana is our participation in the Body and Blood of Christ. This faith has been founded on Our Lord’s words during the Last Supper (This is my Body..my Blood..). Following our Lord’s instruction Do this in remembrance of Me, we offer the Holy Qurbana. St Paul says: “ As often as you eat this bread and drink this cup, you proclaim the Lord’s death until he comes” (1 Cor.11:26). Since the apostolic times, Holy Qurbana was the central act of the Sunday worship (cfr. Acts 20:7). Since the Eucharist is the Body and Blood of Christ, St Paul instructs to participate in it with great devotion and care (1 Cor.11:27-28).

According to St Paul, through our participation in the one Eucharistic bread we become one in Christ: “ The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? The bread which we break, is it not a participation in the blood of Christ? Because there is one bread, we all partake of the one bread” (1 Cor. 10:16-17).

In fact, the goal of the incarnation was to unite the humanity as the sons of God, because, as a result of sin, we had become alienated from God. Baptism and Eucharist are the means to bring human beings into union with Christ. Sacraments, daily prayers, Bible reading, the faith of the Church, all have one aim to make us one in Christ. The Church and its arrangements, especially the symbols help us to meditate on Christ and to live in communion with Him and to worship the Triune God.

Meaning of the Symbols:


Symbols represent invisible divine realities. They are the means of creating a sense of divine presence. A symbol can either be an object or an action. Bread, wine, chalice, paten, altar, cross, candles, and censer are some of the symbols that we use in the celebration of the Holy Qurbana. They are used to express the depth of the meaning of the celebration and its divine character.

The use of symbols is not against the teaching of the Bible. In the Old Testament, the people of Israel used a large number of symbols. The second commandment prohibits the making of ‘graven image, or any likeness of anything in heaven, on earth or in sea’ (Ex.20:4). But the Jews never understood it as a prohibition of the use of symbols in their worship. Thus they considered the temple of Jerusalem and the objects in it as most holy. The temple, the altar and the Ark of the Covenant were the symbols of God’s presence in the midst of Israel. The cover of the ark, known as ‘the mercy seat’ and the images of two cherubim above it were considered as the most important liturgical objects (Ex.25:10-22). The cover of the ark was qualified as Yahweh’s throne or footstool. Christianity has inherited the custom using symbols from the Old Testament.

 2. (A) Formal Code of Doctrine

 

The faith of the Malankara Orthodox Church is in accordance with the Nicene Creed. It believes in the Trinity, that is one God, subsisting in three separate persons called the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit. The three being of one Essence, of one Godhead, have one Will, one Work and one Lordship. The special aspect of the First Person is His Fatherhood, that of the Second Person His Sonship, and that of the Third Person His Procession.

The Malankara Orthodox Church believes in the mystery of Incarnation. That is, the Only Son of God, the Second Person of the Holy Trinity, took to Himself a body and became man. It further believes that at the time of Annunciation, when the Angel Gabriel was sent to the Virgin Mary, the Holy Spirit came upon her and cleansed her of all natural impurity, filling her with His grace. Then the Only Son of God came down and entered her immaculate womb, and took to Himself a body through her, thus becoming a perfect Man with a perfect Soul. After nine months, He was born of her and her virginity was maintained contrary to the laws of nature. It further believes that His true Godhead and His true Manhood were in Him essentially united, He being one Lord and one Son, and that after the union took place in Him, He had but one Nature Incarnate, was one Person, had one Will and one Work. This union is marked by being a natural union of persons, free of all separateness, intermixture, confusion, mingling, change and transformation.

The Orthodox Church calls Mary theotokos, ‘Bearer of God’, because she gave birth to Christ, God truly incarnate.

The Orthodox Church believes that the death of Christ was the separation of His soul from His body, but His deity did not at any time leave either His body or His soul. It further believes that by His death for us, He conferred upon us salvation from eternal death and reconciliation with His Heavenly Father.

The Church believes that the Holy Spirit is the Third Person of the Holy Trinity, the Spirit of Truth, proceeding from the Father. The Holy Spirit is equal with the Father and the Son. (Note. The word for ‘spirit’ in Syriac, ruho (which is also the word for ‘wind’), is grammatically feminine. Holy Spirit is referred to with the feminine pronoun in almost all early Syriac writings, though later writings refer to it in the masculine.)

Concerning the Church, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes the Church is the body of true believers in Christ, and that the Head of the Church is Our Lord God Jesus Christ. The Chief Bishop of the Syriac Orthodox Church is the Patriarch of Antioch.

With regards to Sacraments, the Syriac Orthodox Church believes that the Holy Sacraments are tangible signs designated by the Lord Christ to proclaim divine grace, which He gave for our sanctification. The Sacraments of the Church are: Baptism, Confirmation, Eucharist, Repentance, the Priesthood, Anointing of the Sick, and Marriage. Holy Sacraments are offered by the Bishops and the Priests. Only believers can receive the Sacraments. All but four of the Sacraments are essential for salvation: Baptism, Confirmation, Repentance and Eucharist. Of the sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation and the Priesthood may be received only once.

The Oriental Orthodox Church including Malankara Orthodox Church conforms to the teachings of the Three Ecumenical Councils of Nicea (A.D. 325), Constantinople (A.D. 381) and Ephesus (A.D. 431).